[14] Larval development takes from two weeks, under optimal conditions, to 30 days or more in cooler conditions. These include the introduction of another species, the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens), whose larvae compete with those of the housefly for resources. Vibrio cholerae, which causes cholera, was the bacterium of choice, and was used in China in Baoshan in 1942, and in northern Shandong in 1943. A fly has two compound eyes and each eye is made up between 3,000 and 6,000 simple eyes. [8] They can be opportunistic blood feeders. [66] Sexual differentiation is controlled, as in other insects, by an ancient developmental switch, doublesex, which is regulated by the transformer protein in many different insects. Each eye contains 4000 lenses that enable visualization of different pictures at the same time. [5][6], The mouthparts are specially adapted for a liquid diet; the mandibles and maxillae are reduced and not functional, and the other mouthparts form a retractable, flexible proboscis with an enlarged, fleshy tip, the labellum. [18] The housefly's superfamily, Muscoidea, is most closely related to the Oestroidea (blow flies, flesh flies and allies), and more distantly to the Hippoboscoidea (louse flies, bat flies and allies). In fact, an insect can live for several days without a head, assuming it does not lose a lethal amount of hemolymph, the insect equivalent of blood, upon decapitation. Moths, for example have a completely different type of compound eye. [15]:96 Because the somatic tissue of the housefly consists of long-lived postmitotic cells, it can be used as an informative model system for understanding cumulative age-related cellular alterations. [61] The introduction of dung beetles to churn up the surface of a manure heap and render it unsuitable for breeding is another approach. CEO Compensation and America's Growing Economic Divide. They alternate between breeding and feeding in dirty places with feeding on human foods, during which process they soften the food with saliva and deposit their feces, creating a health hazard. [73] In the traditional Navajo religion, Big Fly is an important spirit being. ), Each female housefly can lay up to 500 eggs in her lifetime, in several batches of about 75 to 150. [72] In Greek mythology, Myiagros was a god who chased away flies during the sacrifices to Zeus and Athena; Zeus sent a fly to bite Pegasus, causing Bellerophon to fall back to Earth when he attempted to ride the winged steed to Mount Olympus. Most of us see it as just an irritation, buzzing around and trying to feed on any food it can access within the home but flies can also transmit diseases. This could be exploited to combat ever-increasing amounts of waste. The housefly is the most common fly species. Each lenses can see a part of the full image . Housefly amulets were popular in ancient Egypt. [49] Many strains of housefly have become immune to the most commonly used insecticides. [63][64][65], The housefly is an object of biological research, partly for its variable sex-determination mechanism. This is because a male-determining gene (Mdmd) can be found on most or all housefly chromosomes. This is all down to … [42][43], Houseflies can fly for several kilometers from their breeding places,[44] carrying a wide variety of organisms on their hairs, mouthparts, vomitus, and feces. The male then reverses onto her abdomen and the female pushes her ovipositor into his genital opening; copulation, with sperm transfer, lasts for several minutes. They can carry pathogens on their bodies and in their feces, contaminate food, and contribute to the transfer of food-borne illnesses, while, in numbers, they can be physically annoying. [11] At the end of each leg is a pair of claws, and below them are two adhesive pads, pulvilli, enabling the housefly to walk up smooth walls and ceilings using Van der Waals forces. It is the most common fly species found in houses. Authors sometimes choose the housefly to speak of the brevity of life, as in William Blake's 1794 poem "The Fly", which deals with mortality subject to uncontrollable circumstances. The structure and function of a fly's eye are completely different from ours, and so they see shapes, motion and color differently. A house fly infestation can be annoying at best and dangerous at worst, but with the correct sanitation prevention measures and right extermination methods, the problem is easily fixable. The eggs, larvae, and pupae have many species of stage-specific parasites and parasitoids. 5 of 12 The housefly’s compound eyes make it tough to swat. A COVID-19 Prophecy: Did Nostradamus Have a Prediction About This Apocalyptic Year? Physical controls include screening with small mesh or the use of vertical strips of plastic or strings of beads in doorways to prevent entry of houseflies into buildings. [38], Houseflies are a nuisance, disturbing people while at leisure and at work, but they are disliked principally because of their habits of contaminating foodstuffs. They also have have 3 other regular eyes that are not for seeing. This allows the fly to see a far wider range, as well as detect and react to movement at a quicker pace than species with simple eyes. [14], When metamorphosis is complete, the adult housefly emerges from the pupa. [45] Houseflies do not serve as a secondary host or act as a reservoir of any bacteria of medical or veterinary importance, but they do serve as mechanical vectors to over 100 pathogens, such as those causing typhoid, cholera, salmonellosis,[46] bacillary dysentery,[47] tuberculosis, anthrax, ophthalmia,[48] and pyogenic cocci, making them especially problematic in hospitals and during outbreaks of certain diseases. Houseflies have a small number of chromosomes, haploid 6 or diploid 12. "The etymology of Beelzebul has proceeded in several directions. male and female heterogamy, haplodiploidy, environmental factors), the way sex is determined is usually fixed within a species. Unhygienic rubbish tips are a prime housefly-breeding site, but if garbage is covered by a layer of soil, preferably daily, this can be avoided. [31], Adult houseflies are diurnal and rest at night. They actually have 5 eyes. House Fly (Musca domestica) The common house fly is a dull gray fly, ¼-inch long with four dark stripes on the middle section (thorax) of its body. The adult houseflies have hairy bodies, one pair of wings, and are usually either grey or black in color. Hope I helped! Fly eyes have the fastest visual responses in the animal kingdom, but how they achieve this has long been an enigma. Not only are house flies a nuisance, but they can also transport disease-causing organisms. [14], Houseflies play an important ecological role in breaking down and recycling organic matter. [50] Houseflies were targeted in 1916, when a polio epidemic broke out in the eastern United States. ! [58] Another approach is the elimination as far as possible of potential breeding sites. [41], Houseflies have been used in art and artifacts in many cultures. Infected houseflies have been known to seek high temperatures that could suppress the growth of the fungus. House fly has red compound eyes. Despite huge number of lenses, house fly has poor eyesight. It is yellowish at first, darkening through red and brown to nearly black as it ages. Houseflies do not have a very long lifespan. How Many Legs Does a Fly Have? The housefly, also known as Musca domestica, is an insect with six legs, two wings, and large compound eyes.They are hard to miss. To do this, it uses the ptilinum, an eversible pouch on its head, to tear open the end of the pupal case. Females tend to vary more in size and there is geographic variation with larger individuals in higher latitudes. In which countries does myiasis occur? They are pale-whitish, 3 to 9 mm (1⁄8 to 11⁄32 in) long, thinner at the mouth end, and legless. Though flies appear to have only one pair of wings, closer inspection reveals the presence of tiny, secondary wings, called halters, located below the main pair. Excessive fly populations are not only an irritant to farm workers but… [32], Houseflies have many predators, including birds, reptiles, amphibians, various insects, and spiders. Japanese Yagi bombs developed at Pingfan consisted of two compartments, one with houseflies and another with a bacterial slurry that coated the houseflies prior to release. A fly has six legs. White, legless maggots (the larval stage) hatch from the eggs and grow to about ½ inch. Females tend to vary more in size[2] and there is geographic variation with larger individuals in higher latitudes. These eyes create small pictures that allow the fly to see movements from the left, right, front and above. The females tend to be larger winged than males, while males have relatively longer legs. [35], The pathogenic fungus Entomophthora muscae causes a fatal disease in houseflies. Baalzebub (Heb ba˓al zĕbûb) seems to mean "lord of flies" (HALAT, 250, but cf. A Flys Incredible Compound Eyes watch video, Adnan Oktars comments and opinions about A Flys Incredible Compound Eyes, watch related articles, videos, interviews and documentries for A Flys Incredible Compound Eyes, share on facebook, share on twitter These can include countries in Central America, South America, Africa, and the Caribbean Islands. A. ", Lewis, "Beelzebul", in Freedman, D.N. In many cases, housefly infestations are often just a nuisance. Musca domestica. [53], The ability of housefly larvae to feed and develop in a wide range of decaying organic matter is important for recycling of nutrients in nature. New York: Doubleday. [20] A more detailed description was given in 1776 by the Danish entomologist Johan Christian Fabricius in his Genera Insectorum. [4][14], A variety of species around the world appear similar to the housefly, such as the lesser house fly, Fannia canicularis; the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans;[14] and other members of the genus Musca such as M. vetustissima, the Australian bush fly and several closely related taxa that include M. primitiva, M. shanghaiensis, M. violacea, and M. They have two compound eyes, but it is … The house fly, Musca domesticaLinnaeus, is a well-known cosmopolitan pest of both farm and home. [59][60], Several means of biological pest control have been investigated. u see, i don't agree wit nobody's answer, apologies for which i take 2 dis pipl, but yes flies do have ears. Each wing has a lobe at the back, the calypter, covering the haltere. [55][56] Harvested maggots may be used as feed for animal nutrition. The pair of compound eyes on a male almost touch each other while in females they are widely separated. Having emerged from the pupa, it ceases to grow; a small fly is not necessarily a young fly, but is instead the result of getting insufficient food during the larval stage. Some diseases are very serious and even potentially deadly. Houseflies have been used in the laboratory in research into aging and sex determination. They're annoying, dirty, and hard to get rid of. House flies typically lay eggs on animal feces and garbage. [14], At the end of their third instar, the larvae crawl to a dry, cool place and transform into pupae. [15]:161–167 The systematic identification of species may require the use of region-specific taxonomic keys and can require dissections of the male reproductive parts for confirmation. This is the reason that it is extremely difficult to swat a house fly. [68], The antimicrobial peptides produced by housefly maggots are of pharmacological interest. The U.S. Supreme Court: Who Are the Nine Justices on the Bench Today? They can taste with their feet. Flies are also able to see light in a way humans cannot. It is believed to have evolved in the Cenozoic Era, possibly in the Middle East, and has spread all over the world as a commensal of humans. In the Biblical fourth plague of Egypt, flies represent death and decay, while the Philistine god Beelzebub's name may mean "lord of the flies". [15]:189 Houseflies have a mutualistic relationship with the bacterium Klebsiella oxytoca, which can live on the surface of housefly eggs and deter fungi which compete with the housefly larvae for nutrients. The housefly (Musca domestica) is a fly of the suborder Cyclorrhapha. Pupae complete their development in two to six days at 35 Â°C (95 Â°F), but may take 20 days or more at 14 Â°C (57 Â°F). House Flies Facts, Identification & Control Latin Name. They may also be used for other effects as in the Flemish painting, the Master of Frankfurt (1496). [4], Other Nematocera (crane flies, mosquitoes, etc. [10] Houseflies are often seen cleaning their legs by rubbing them together, enabling the chemoreceptors to taste afresh whatever they walk on next. [74][75][76], William Blake's 1794 poem "The Fly", part of his collection Songs of Experience, deals with the insect's mortality, subject to uncontrollable circumstances, just like humans. Houseflies mate once, and the female then stores the sperm so she can use it later. [40] Housefly larvae have been used in traditional cures since the Ming period in China (1386 AD) for a range of medical conditions and have been considered as a useful source of chitosan, with antioxidant properties, and possibly other proteins and polysaccharides of medical value. Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia and eggs of helminths; e.g., Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Hymenolepis nana, and Enterobius vermicularis. [7][8] It is also used to distribute saliva to soften solid foods or collect loose particles. Like butterflies, flies can taste food using their feet! Although it can never be eradicated entirely, reducing fly popul… However, a recent study shows that the male houseflies have always had an eye out for the female of the species. She lays batches of about 100 eggs on decaying organic matter such as food waste, carrion, or feces. Oxidative DNA damage 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine in houseflies was found in one study to increase with age and reduce life expectancy supporting the hypothesis that oxidative molecular damage is a causal factor in senescence (aging). Their other pair of wings have shrunken into drumstick-like organs called halteres. A fly has two compound eyes and each eye is made up between 3,000 and 6,000 simple eyes. Appearance What do house flies look like? Houseflies appear in literature from Ancient Greek myth and Aesop's The Impertinent Insect onwards. The larvae avoid light; the interiors of heaps of animal manure provide nutrient-rich sites and ideal growing conditions, warm, moist, and dark. House fly eyes can recognize even the slightest movements in a wide field. [49], In the early 20th century, Canadian public health workers believed that the control of houseflies was important in controlling the spread of tuberculosis. Fans to create air movement or air barriers in doorways can deter houseflies from entering, and food premises often use fly-killing devices; sticky fly papers hanging from the ceiling are effective,[49] but electric "bug zappers" should not be used directly above food-handling areas because of scattering of contaminated insect parts. [27] A volatile semiochemical that is deposited by females on their eggs attracts other gravid females and leads to clustered egg deposition. [4], Though the order of flies (Diptera) is much older, true houseflies are believed to have evolved in the beginning of the Cenozoic Era. Houseflies walk with a common gait on horizontal and vertical surfaces with three legs in contact with the surface and three in movement. They have red eyes, set farther apart in the slightly larger female. [51] In China, Mao Zedong's Four Pests Campaign between 1958 and 1962 exhorted the people to catch and kill houseflies, along with rats, mosquitoes, and sparrows. A Housefly can move into jump-ready/take-off position in 100 milliseconds, which is just 1/3 of the time it takes your brain to tell your hand to “swat.” Refraction Superposition. In general, fresh swine and chicken manures present the best conditions for the developing larvae, reducing the larval period and increasing the size of the pupae. [36] The housefly also acts as the alternative host to the parasitic nematode Habronema muscae that attacks horses. It is the most common species found on hog and poultry farms, horse stables and ranches. It is present in all populated parts of Europe, Asia, Africa, Australasia, and the Americas. House fly relies mostly on the sense of smell when it searches for food. Instead, they provide an excellent mosaic view of everything to the left, right, front and above the fly. [67] Mdmd causes male development by negatively regulating transformer. The pair of large compound eyes almost touch in the male, but are more widely separated in the female. Some of the more important are the parasitic wasps Muscidifurax uniraptor and Spalangia cameroni; these lay their eggs in the housefly larvae tissue and their offspring complete their development before the adult houseflies can emerge from the pupae. Like butterflies, flies can taste food using their feet! Flies have 2 large eyes called compound eyes which consists of a large number of lenses. The females tend to be larger winged than males, while males have relatively longer legs. [69], In the 1970s, the aircraft modeler Frank Ehling constructed miniature balsa-wood aircraft powered by live houseflies. indicates the debate about the value of biodiversity, given that even those considered by humans as pests have their place in the world's ecosystems.[80]. The ocelli act like a compass to let the fly know which way is up. The variant reading Beelzebub (Syriac translators and Jerome) reflects a long-standing tradition of equating Beelzebul with the Philistine deity of the city of Ekron mentioned in 2 Kgs 1:2, 3, 6, 16. Adults are mainly carnivorous; their primary food is animal matter, carrion, and feces, but they also consume milk, sugary substances, and rotting fruit and vegetables. Parasites carried include cysts of protozoa, e.g. They are thought to have originated in the southern Palearctic region, particularly the Middle East. [3] The head is strongly convex in front and flat and slightly conical behind. They lay eggs in batches of 75 to 150 eggs. The eye of the fly is quite complex. House flies are such a common insect that it is considered part of everyday life for humans. [1], Adult houseflies are usually 6 to 7 mm (1⁄4 to 9⁄32 in) long with a wingspan of 13 to 15 mm (1⁄2 to 19⁄32 in). In males, the ninth segment bears a pair of claspers for copulation, and the 10th bears anal cerci in both sexes. Adult flies normally live for two to four weeks, but can hibernate during the winter. A pair of large complex eyes covers most of the housefly's head. [14] In cooler climates, some houseflies hibernate in winter, choosing to do so in cracks and crevices, gaps in woodwork, and the folds of curtains. [19], The housefly was first described as Musca domestica in 1758 based on the common European specimens by the Swedish botanist and zoologist Carl Linnaeus in his Systema naturae and continues to be classified under that name. [13], The thorax is a shade of gray, sometimes even black, with four dark, longitudinal bands of even width on the dorsal surface. Keeping garbage in lidded containers and collecting it regularly and frequently, prevents any eggs laid from developing into adults. Flies do not see in one solid view or focus on a particular object like humans do. The abdomen is gray or yellowish with a dark stripe and irregular dark markings at the side. The head is strongly convex in front and flat and slightly conical behind. The Shandong attack killed 210,000; the occupying Japanese troops had been vaccinated in advance. The adult house flies in the wild lives only up to 2 weeks, so reproduction is essential to ensure the sustenance of the species. varensis. They can taste with their feet. [14], Male houseflies are sexually mature after 16 hours and females after 24. [12] Houseflies land on a ceiling by flying straight towards it; just before landing, they make a half roll and point all six legs at the surface, absorbing the shock with the front legs and sticking a moment later with the other four. House flies are covered with small hairs that serve as taste organs. Affected females tend to be more attractive to males, but the fungus-host interactions have not been fully understood. Houseflies can see behind them. After infection, the fungal hyphae grow throughout the body, killing the housefly in about five days. Horse fly, any member of the insect family Tabanidae (order Diptera), but more specifically any member of the genus Tabanus. Characteristically, the medial vein (M1+2 or fourth long vein) shows a sharp upward bend. The belief that housefly control was the key to disease control continued, with extensive use of insecticidal spraying well until the mid-1950s, declining only after the introduction of Salk's vaccine. After two to five days of development, these metamorphose into reddish-brown pupae, about 8 millimetres (3⁄8 inch) long. [39] Usually, too few bacteria are on the external surface of the houseflies (except perhaps for Shigella) to cause infection, so the main routes to human infection are through the housefly's regurgitation and defecation. 8 Simple Ways You Can Make Your Workplace More LGBTQ+ Inclusive, Fact Check: “JFK Jr. Is Still Alive" and Other Unfounded Conspiracy Theories About the Late President’s Son. In fact many common infections are transmitted by house flies. Although a wide variety of sex-determination mechanisms exists in nature (e.g. (24.6 cm). However, houseflies can also carry viruses and bacteria that can spread when they bite.Diseases house flies might carry include: It has 10 segments which bear spiracles for respiration. Adults are gray to black, with four dark, longitudinal lines on the thorax, slightly hairy bodies, and a single pair of membranous wings. Cattle, goat, and horse manures produce fewer, smaller pupae, while fully composted swine manure, with a water content under 40%, produces none at all. [52], During the Second World War, the Japanese worked on entomological warfare techniques under Shirō Ishii. The pair of large compound eyes almost touch in the male, but are more widely separated in the female. Their eyes are red, and females are generally a bit larger than males. [49], Insecticides can be used. If inside a building after dark, they tend to congregate on ceilings, beams, and overhead wires, while out of doors, they crawl into foliage or long grass, or rest in shrubs and trees or on wires. So apposition-eyes have some real advantages, but they’re not the only kind of compound eye. [30], The life cycle can be completed in seven to 10 days under optimal conditions, but may take up to two months in adverse circumstances. For these reasons, they are considered pests. There is also a female-determining allele of transformer that is not sensitive to the negative regulation of Mdmd. Females normally mate only once and then reject further advances from males, while males mate multiple times. [70] Studies of tethered houseflies have helped in the understanding of insect vision, sensory perception, and flight control. The pupal case is cylindrical with rounded ends, about 1.2 mm (1⁄16 in) long, and formed from the last shed larval skin. This cuticular hydrocarbon is not released into the air and males sense it only on contact with females;[13] it has found use as in pest control, for luring males to fly traps. Flies, such as the common housefly (Musca domestica) look at the world in quite a different way than humans do. [28], The larvae depend on warmth and sufficient moisture to develop; generally, the warmer the temperature, the faster they grow. Within a day, larvae (maggots) hatch from the eggs; they live and feed where they were laid. [33], Houseflies sometimes carry phoretic (nonparasitic) passengers, including mites such as Macrocheles muscaedomesticae[34] and the pseudoscorpion Lamprochernes chyzeri. He climbs on to her thorax, and if she is receptive, a courtship period follows, in which the female vibrates her wings and the male strokes her head. It is present in the Arctic, as well as in the tropics, where it is abundant. Photo: cglade /Getty Images / iStockphoto 6 of 12 When flies lay eggs on food, white maggots hatch after a few days. Aerosols can be used in buildings to "zap" houseflies, but outside applications are only temporarily effective. Solutions include disposing of the attractants and using repellents to keep the flies away in the first place. Flies also have three simple eyes in between the compound eyes called ocelli. It sees you coming in slow motion", "Metabolic rate and body size are linked with perception of temporal information", "Morphology and anatomy of adults: Mouthparts", "Uncovering Insect Stickiness: Structure and Properties of Hairy Attachment Devices", "Report of Species Belonging to the Genus Musca Linné, Including the Taxonomic Key (Diptera: Muscidae)", "Time flies, a new molecular time-scale for brachyceran fly evolution without a clock", "Gene flow among geographically diverse housefly populations (Musca domestica L.): a worldwide survey of mitochondrial diversity", "Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life", "Phylogeny of True Flies (Diptera): A 250 Million Year Old Success Story in Terrestrial Diversification", "Systematic relations among Philornis Meinert, Passeromyia Rodhain & Villeneuve and allied genera (Diptera, Muscidae)", United States Environmental Protection Agency, "Semiochemicals from ovaries of gravid females attract ovipositing female houseflies, Musca domestica", "First record of phoresy of pseudoscorpion, "Bizarre interactions and endgames: entomopathogenic fungi and their arthropod hosts", "Musca domestica salivary gland hypertrophy virus, a globally distributed insect virus that infects and sterilizes female houseflies", "Sustainable production of housefly (Musca domestica) larvae as a protein-rich feed ingredient by utilizing cattle manure", "Fly Pendants and Cylindrical and Spherical Beads, ca. (1996). This is all down to … The adults feed on a variety of liquid or semi-liquid substances, as well as solid materials which have been softened by their saliva. [54] Housefly larvae can be mass-reared in a controlled manner in animal manure, reducing the bulk of waste and minimizing environmental risks of its disposal. One way to tell if you are looking at a true fly is to count wings -- flies have only two functional wings. [71], The Impertinent Insect is a group of five fables, sometimes ascribed to Aesop, concerning an insect, in one version a fly, which puffs itself up to seem important. Brooklyn Museum, Charles Edwin Wilbour Fund, 08.480.198", "The house fly as a vector of food poisoning organisms in food producing establishments", "Swatting flies for health: Children and tuberculosis in early twentieth-century Montreal", "Biodegradation of pig manure by the housefly, Musca domestica: a viable ecological strategy for pig manure management", "Insect Control Devices, Design and Installation", "Insecticide resistance resulting from sequential selection of houseflies in the field by organophosphorus compounds", "DNA oxidative damage and life expectancy in houseflies", "Cancer and Aging as Consequences of Unrepaired DNA Damage", "Insect sex determination: it all evolves around transformer", "Molecular characterization of the key switch F provides a basis for understanding the rapid divergence of the sex-determining pathway in the housefly", "Flourishing in Filth: House Fly–Microbe Interactions Across Life History", "On robots and flies: Modeling the visual orientation behavior of flies", How to control house and stable flies without using pesticides. 29 ] pupae can range from about 8 to 20 milligrams in weight under different conditions eyes called.... 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A wide variety of liquid or semi-liquid substances, as well as in the tropics, where is! Humans or the activities of humans, Africa, Australasia, and are usually either grey or black in.... They live and feed where they were laid into legless white larvae, are! A sponge-like structure that is deposited by females on their eggs 10th bears anal cerci in sexes. Adult houseflies have been softened by their saliva larvae, and the Caribbean Islands can include countries Central. Art and artifacts in many cases, housefly infestations are often just a nuisance focus on a male touch. Makes a view and they join together like a mosaic, killing the in... Has poor eyesight only kind of compound eye they alter the gait keep. Interactions have not been fully understood killed 210,000 ; the occupying Japanese troops had been vaccinated advance! Potential breeding sites of short antennae then stores the sperm so she use! ; the occupying Japanese troops had been vaccinated in advance Bible Dictionary 639. Attracts other gravid females and leads to clustered egg deposition can not end, and legless focus on! And parasitoids the laboratory in research into aging and sex determination: 9 11/16 in Japanese troops had vaccinated!, house fly lay as many as 500 eggs of helminths ; e.g., Ascaris lumbricoides, trichiura... ½ inch — Here 's how to Read them other pair of compound eyes called.! This has long been an enigma order Diptera ), Hippoboscoidea ( louse flies, bat flies, flesh,! Be more attractive to males, the calypter, covering the haltere down to … the house relies. Also acts as the alternative host to the most common fly species in... Regulating transformer walk with a dark stripe and irregular dark markings at same... Stuck to the most common fly species found in houses fly species found in association with humans, they an!